The European standard of living, high social benefits (including pensions), low unemployment and quality living conditions - this is what distinguishes the inhabitants of Germany in comparison with most countries of the globe.
Benefits of German citizenship
On paper and under the law, the list of benefits is approximately as follows:
- Equal rights in the field of legislation in relation to other citizens of Germany;
- Opportunity to participate in the political life of the country and vote;
- You can open accounts in European banks (for example, with Russian citizenship this is not available, but is useful for business).
Benefits in living conditions for a person living in Germany and who has acquired citizenship:
- The minimum level of wages in the country is over one and a half thousand euros;
- Moderate climate - in winter the temperature is not lower than 0 ° C, in summer - not higher than +30;
- Education (bachelor's) is free, not counting the semester fee of 70-450 euros - but for studying at universities, many of which are in the top 100 best in the world, this is negligible;
- There is a full range of choice in the labor market: any desired profession;
- Social benefits, allowances, provision - reliable health protection;
- Landscapes and ecology - nature in general: garbage sorting and respect for energy sources; beautiful waterfalls and rocks with lakes, as well as parks.
Benefits for people who travel frequently:
- Free movement within the territory of the European Union without complications (similar preferences are given Polish citizenship);
- Easier to obtain a visa for most non-European countries;
- Visa-free entry to 191 countries;
- Consular state protection of Germany outside its borders (there are restrictions for persons with dual citizenship);
- Unlimited career choice also in the countries of the European Union;
Immigration to Germany is the most popular immigration on request after the United States, that is, it is the second largest number of applicants for immigration to this country. In terms of the number of migrants, it also leads and occupies the first places in the countries. In 2019, over 13 million IDPs lived in the country, or 15% of the country's total population.
Along with additional citizenship, a private jet also gives a sense of freedom. For instance, Gulfstream G650 — is truly a legend of private aircraft industry.
Ways to obtain German citizenship
The most common way to obtain German citizenship is simply to be born in the country, that is, by birthright (and also limited - by the right of “soil”, when one parent is a citizen living in Germany). It is also possible to become a citizen by being adopted. For all other people there is naturalization.
Naturalization and timing
Naturalization is a voluntary entry into the ranks of citizens of another state, which requires the fulfillment of a number of necessary conditions. German citizenship requires the age limit of the applicant (only from 16 full years), a certain period of stay in the country and material security.
The qualifying period usually lasts more than 8 years (the period can be reduced in some cases), and the source of income must be in combination with independence from social unemployment benefits from the state.
The qualifying period is the time spent by a person in the country, which can be taken into account when applying. Also, a person is required to pass tests for knowledge of the German language above level B1, as well as law, political structure, culture and history of Germany.
The qualifying period may be shortened under a number of conditions:
- Marriage with a citizen of Germany for 2 years - up to 3 required years of residence in Germany
- Particular success in integration - up to 6 years
- Passing a special integration course - up to 7 years
Return of “lost” citizenship
Citizenship can be returned to those who were previously considered citizens, but for some reason lost or changed. You can return and obtain citizenship as a family together with children under 16 years old. You can lose or lose German citizenship in the following ways:
- Voluntary renunciation of citizenship and change of passport to a foreign one (or refusal in favor of another state with a dual passport; citizenship of another country can also be acquired through an application);
- Be adopted/adopted by foreigners;
- Join a foreign army and become part of the military forces of another country;
- Being convicted of cheating in obtaining citizenship.
Moreover, if an adult loses citizenship in the above ways, then his child under 5 years of age has the right to remain a citizen of Germany, that is, the loss of citizenship by one family member does not apply to all its other members.
It is possible to lose German citizenship when joining the armed forces of another country, but this does not apply to compulsory military service. That is, if a person is going to join paid, hired troops, then he should immediately apply for citizenship of another country.
Under the law on expatriate residents
Under special conditions, it is possible to obtain citizenship for persons who suffered after the Second World War and fascism. That is, those whose parents were forced to change their place of residence by force, and now they want to return to their historical homeland, can apply for this method of obtaining citizenship.
Innovations regarding this type of citizenship acquisition came into force in August 2021. What you need to do in order to regain German citizenship under the law on expatriate residents:
- Be born / born after May 23, 1949 in the GDR;
- Have parents of German origin with German citizenship (born in marriage to a German mother and a foreign father before 01/01/1975 or born out of wedlock to a German father and a foreign mother before 07/01/1993);
- Do not acquire citizenship by birth or lose it before 04/01/1953 due to legitimation;
- Be the descendants of the above persons and fall under the law on family reunification.
In 2017, as many as 33 % of the population were late settlers. That is, they exercised the right to move to the country through kinship. This is possible if a person has a relative who previously lived in the country or was expatriated. This is a real reason for a Russian to leave for Germany.
Legitimation (from lat. legitimate - correct, legal, made according to the law) - recognition of the legal grounds for the rule of a political party or leader. Also, the legitimization of any right or social institution, a set of rules and charters.
Labor immigration in comparison with other methods
|Method of obtaining citizenship||Price||Conditions|
|Student immigration||Accommodation - about 1410$ / month
Language courses - 284$/month
University - free of charge, only semester fees, from 453$ / year
|Enter a university or become an applicant / applicant (you can study in English if you do not know German)|
|By birth||51-225 euros + document fees||At least one parent has German citizenship|
|Labor immigration||220 euros for the application + expenses for the move itself and the collection of documents||Availability of qualifications, sometimes a letter from the employer|
Foreign students are a small phenomenon, because this type of relocation is associated with great difficulties. This is a time-consuming way to move legally and emigrate successfully by simply staying to study. This option of emigration is not particularly popular.
This pattern of investment in how to move is profitable in the long run. Especially for family people or the younger generation who are serious about their future.
The procedure for obtaining German citizenship
To obtain a German passport, you need to go through 5 stages in order:
- Choose the appropriate method;
- Obtain a D visa to enter the country;
- Obtain a residence permit in Germany;
- Pass the required tests;
- Get citizenship.
Minus: you will have to renounce your previous citizenship and draw up a waiver in advance, before filing a petition, in order to be called a citizen of another country, or apply for the acquisition of dual citizenship.
The main problem is the money both for the place of residence, and for the documents themselves and the move. But upon arrival, most people find it most difficult to find a job and get a German “retraining”. This is a difficult challenge, especially for those who speak German at an intermediate level - it is much easier to work in your native language and prove your knowledge of the profession.
You need to pass certification on the declared education / work experience, provide documents or pass a language proficiency test in order to work calmly and receive constant profit while the application is being considered.
The second most difficult problem is finding a place to live. Some applicants immediately start building a future permanent residence upon arrival or in advance before obtaining citizenship, some are more lucky and inherit real estate. Renting a home is also a common way to obtain a residence permit. But in this case, you need to negotiate with tenants for assistance in registration.
Where to apply
The application must be submitted to the German Consulate. It’s good to want, but for the goal you have to go through a series of bureaucratic difficulties that can drag on. During this period, you will need to work somewhere, live and renew your visa.
Required package of documents
Different stages of immigration require different sets of documents. The list of documents required for obtaining citizenship:
- To obtain a residence permit or a blue card, you need visa D, costs 68$, valid from 3 to 6 months;
- Required for a work permit blue card, price 125$, valid up to 4 years, but requires a D visa;
- To work, create a family or study, you need residence permit, which is valid for a period of six months to 3 years, but to obtain it you also need to have a visa D;
- To obtain all civil rights (but not political) you need permanent residence, issue price - 153-284$, duration - indefinite, for this you need a blue card, a residence permit or immigration as a Jew;
- To obtain all rights and obligations, you need a passport, it costs 289$, it requires a residence permit, permanent residence or repatriation.
Permanent residence - stands for permanent residence. The period of residence in Germany is unlimited.
Visa D will require processing from several weeks to months. Required package of documents for visa D:
- Application for a visa in German in duplicate according to the model;
- A form where you must specify contact information;
- Safety Criteria Assessment Questionnaire;
- 3 photos 3.5x4.5 (white background, not older than six months from the submission of documents, 2 photos to be pasted into applications);
- Passport (at least two blank pages, valid for at least another 6 months);
- Passport pages with signatures and stamps (photocopies in 2 copies) and a general passport, the same;
- Paid health insurance (required minimum - at least 2 weeks before concluding a public insurance contract in Germany).
For those who do not have citizenship of the Russian Federation, you need to provide a residence permit in Russia along with two copies of the document.
You can translate documents yourself with a sufficient level of language proficiency, but you still need to certify them by a notary public so that the translations have legal force.
Additionally, for each individual case, a new list of required documents is added. Each document must be translated into German and notarized, as well as have two copies of the original and translations. This rule does not apply only to insurance and Russian and foreign passports.
You should keep the entire set of documents throughout the process of obtaining citizenship.
Exams and tests
The citizenship test consists of 33 questions on a variety of topics from the public law spectrum. Each question contains 4 possible answers. The minimum threshold for passing tests is 17 correct answers out of 33.
To pass the exam, you must know the German language at least at least level B1-B2.
After passing the test positively, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees issues a certificate with the results to the individual. BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees - this is how it sounds in German.
To take the test, the applicant needs to pay 25 euros, take an identity card with him and find the nearest test point - the relevant agency in this case. You need to register at the point. Finding a local test site is easy - your local citizenship office will help you find the address.
The purpose of the test is to ensure that everyone who becomes a German citizen knows their rights and obligations, that is, they are well-versed in the political, economic and social structure of the country, at least superficially. Ignorance of the laws does not exempt from responsibility - and here the principle is the same.
It is quite rational to know in advance all the norms of behavior in society before entering into local German citizenship. Therefore, the tests also include questions about the economic and historical development of not only the entire country, but also a separate region where the applicant is going to live.
Who is not required to take this test? Those who studied at a German school are either exempt due to serious illness or disability or age. Testing can be exempted if health certificates are provided (which can be greatly improved by visiting our friends in wellness club Chistye Prudy 🙂 ).
If the test result is negative (below 17 required correct answers), you can retake the test - there is always a way out.
You can prepare in advance for the test online - the practice test contains 310 questions, a user-friendly interface with access to correct and incorrect answers. Public law can also be studied in more detail by downloading the complete catalog of all issues in PDF format.
The convenience of preparing for the test lies in its electronic format and open access to it. 10 questions from the entire list are local laws, and federal states, in addition to providing additional questions to the test, sometimes offer specialized courses to prepare for the test.
A language proficiency test is a necessary basis for obtaining German citizenship. You can attend an integration course to learn the German language. Also part of the program is a 100-hour training course on passing the usual test described above, at the end of which a certificate is issued.
Terms of consideration
From a few weeks to six months. Purchasing process acceleration is prohibited and does not fall under the legal rules for obtaining citizenship.
To receive the service will cost 220 euros. Parents of minor children will have to pay 51 euros for each child. A child who has not reached the age of majority, who acquires citizenship on his own, must pay 225 euros to the state.
Large and poor families have benefits: the total payment for all those wishing to obtain citizenship can be reduced. It is possible to installment plan for the required amount, which is provided by the state.
Possible reasons for refusal
In order to answer the question “how to move to Germany”, you need to know what to expect from the agency and what criteria you need to meet so as not to waste time and money. How to leave for Germany with confidence that immigration will be successful - you must comply with the following requirements and meet the following conditions:
- The presence of permanent residence or temporary residence, which will give rise to the acquisition of permanent residence in the future;
- Legal residence for 8 years in the country;
- Lack of social unemployment benefits (either social security or from the employment center);
- Proficiency in spoken and written German above level B1;
- Passed a test on knowledge of the social and labor rights of the country;
- No conviction for a serious criminal offence;
- Agreement with the Basic Law of Germany (required in oral and written form);
- The presence of a monogamous marriage - only 1 spouse;
- Availability of identity documents (passport, identity card, driver's license, birth certificate);
- Renunciation of former citizenship or deprivation of it (possible option with approval for obtaining dual citizenship).
Special cases in which it is worthwhile to submit additional applications in advance, and citizenship may be approved, include:
- Sudden loss of employment;
- Lack of income due to childcare;
- The period of obtaining a new profession, training.
Receiving benefits does not always affect the denial of nationality of the country. When citizenship is restored, the law looks the same. They can refuse with illegal methods and actions, such as:
- Illegal residence in the territory of the country;
- Illegal inheritance;
- Fictitious marriage.
Also, the presence of a loan, tax debt and lack of employment is suspicious. In case of difficulties in the political sphere, residency may be denied for no apparent reason.
The best option and the most advantageous, but hard to find. In 2011, 4.3 million people had dual citizenship of Germany and a number of other countries - most often Poland, Turkey and Russia.
By the end of 2021, it became almost impossible to obtain a residence permit or permanent residence in the Schengen countries for investment. The only way at the moment is apply for permanent residence in Malta.
In order to obtain citizenship of Germany and an additional country, for example, having left for permanent residence in Germany from Russia, it is necessary to submit a petition to the BAMF with a request to retain Russian citizenship. In the same department, you can get advice for adult migrants.
If the application is approved, then when entering for permanent residence in Germany, the passport will indicate dual citizenship of both countries.
Additional pluses: leaving the country will not become an obstacle (for example, when obtaining a visa) for at least 192 countries, it will become easier to travel because you do not have to apply for another country, having two citizenships. In the case of Germany, a foreign passport becomes redundant by all laws and any city becomes open.